Foreword: if you can’t read Chinese characters yet, make use of the Perapera plugin for Chrome which will give you roll-over definitions and Pinyin for Chinese words. This saves me having to type out lots of Pinyin. It also avoids cluttering up pages even more than they already are. (Perapera doesn’t work with Firefox Quantum, unfortunately, but I’d love to hear what the latest alternative is.)
The most basic pattern of making comparisons in Chinese literally goes “X with Y [degree of similarity]“. A common word for ‘with’ is ‘跟‘. Here are a bunch of examples to illustrate:
I am the same as you
[Lit. I with you same]
I’m about the same as you
[Lit. I with you about-the-same]
I’m pretty different to you
[Lit. I with you pretty-different]
I’m not the same as you
[Lit. I with you not same]
I’m completely the same as you
[Lit. I with you completely same]
I’m completely different to you
[Lit. I with you completely not same]
I’m kind of similar to you
[Lit. I with you have little same]
I’m similar to you
[Lit. I with you similar]
The above sentence patterns are all pretty easy, right? You can replace ‘我‘ or ‘你’ in the above sentences with any other nouns you please. Here are a few examples that you can build off:
You are the same as me
You are the same as him/her
Pigs and horses are not the same
Feral dogs and wolves are about the same
Now comes the fun part: you can interchange pretty much every instance of 跟 with 和 or 與. ‘與‘ is more characteristic of writing than speech, but it’s still fairly common. Examples:
我跟你一樣 / 我和你一樣 / 我與你一樣
I am the same as you
你跟他不一樣 / 你和他不一樣 / 你與他不一樣
You’re not the same as him
You can go through the other examples listed at the start, systematically substituting in 和 or 與.
[Note: there are differences in collocation for 跟, 和 and 與, but they are relatively minor. You can try Googling different permutations of 跟, 和 and 與 with a noun and 一樣, 不一樣 (or whatever); you’ll see that for nouns like 人, virtually every permutation will register hits.]
Other ways of expressing similitude: [Likeness word][Noun][Demarcator]
Chinese songs make extensive use of similes using verbs other than 跟, 和 and 與. The pattern goes [likeness word][noun][demarcator]. The demarcator tells us we’ve finished our noun phrase.
As we’ll see, there are lots of likeness words and lots of demarcators, and most permutations are acceptable in Chinese. You can leave out either one, too.
A common demarcator is 般, which demarcates the end of the noun we’re talking about. We can also substitute in lots of other ‘likeness’ words instead of 彷彿 (or none at all); for example:
Like a dog
Like a pig
Like a horse
Like a chicken
As you can see, there are a lot of alternatives. The first three are more likely to be found in speech, whilst the other six are more likely to be found in writing. There are slight nuances in which ‘likeness’ word is appropriate for different situations, but it’s okay to consider them the same to start with. (Hint for more advanced learners: the ‘best’ choice depends on the number of syllables of the surrounding words.)
Note that these are all fragments: although they can theoretically form sub-clauses on their own, it’s more common to include other parts of a sentence with them. For example:
Like a cough
A noise like a a cough
Make a noise [that sounds] like a cough
He suddenly makes a noise [that sounds] like a cough
…and so on.
I’ve arbitrarily picked 彷彿 as our ‘likeness’ word for this section, but you can pick any other one you like from the previous section. (Also, something interesting to note: 彷彿 can also be written as 仿佛 or 髣髴. These three are all pronounced fǎng fú, and are just variant character forms of each other.)
We’ve already seen in the previous section the demarcator 般 that goes at the end of the clause. There are a few others that we can use:
Her hair is like snow
Again: it’s okay to assume for now that these demarcators are identical in usage. Anything sentence with 彷彿 is more likely to be written rather than spoken, so don’t get too hung up about which demarcator to use.
Examples from songs
I couldn’t get in to the same university as you
We seemed to be made for each other
[Lit. We seem from-birth at together]
No demarcator here at all!
Going on a grand adventure
[Lit. Open hero-same adventure]
Here there’s a demarcator but no initial likeness word. You could also identically say:
…or you could use some of the other alternatives already introduced. The one you pick depends on how you want you line to scan.
As beautiful as a film star
This is a nice example of putting an adjective after 一樣 to make a comparison. More examples:
As tall as a film star
As rich as a film star
As famous as a film star
This page is a work-in-progress: the goal is to have some grammar pages can be cross-referenced with commonly-recurring patterns that appear in songs. So, this page will be updated from time-to-time. Comments, questions and suggestions are all welcome.